Main Article Content

Regina Alves
Universidade do Minho
Kelvin Oliveira
Universidade do Minho
José Precioso
Universidade do Minho
Vol. 10 No. 1 (2023), Articles, pages 61-75
Submitted: Apr 20, 2023 Accepted: May 27, 2023 Published: Jul 1, 2023
How to Cite


Vaccination is an important preventive measure to reduce the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact in terms of morbidity, mortality and hospitalisation. Furthermore, it can play an important role in the return to ‘normality’ on university campuses. This study analyses attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccination and their relationship with the intention to obtain the COVID-19 vaccine among university students. A cross-sectional study was carried out in March 2021 with a convenience sample of 238 students at a Brazilian higher education institution. The data for the study were collected using an online questionnaire comprising information on sociodemographic data, a scale of attitudes and beliefs about COVID-19 vaccine, and a question about intention to obtain the COVID-19 vaccine. The students surveyed revealed a high intention to obtain the COVID-19 vaccine when offered. Students who showed more positive general attitudes towards vaccination and weaker beliefs that vaccination would cause adverse effects or be unsafe were found to be more likely to accept the COVID-19 vaccine. This type of information is essential for universities in order to invest in campaigns to debunk misconceptions about the side effects of the vaccine.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details


AJZEN, Icek. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179-211.

ALSHEHRY, Abdualrahman Saeed; CRUZ, Jonas Preposi; ALQUWEZ, Nahed; ALSHARARI, Abdalkarem F.; TORK, Hanan M. M.; ALMAZAN, Joseph U.; ALSHAMMARI, Farhan; ALABDULAZIZ, Hawa; ALSOLAMI, Fatmah; TUMALA, Regie B.; THOBAITY, Abdulellah Al; ALQAHTANI, Friyal Mubarak; & BALAY-ODAO, Ejercito. (2022). Predictors of nursing students’ intention to receive COVID-19 vaccination: A multi-university study in Saudi Arabia. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 78, 446-457.

ALVES, Regina Ferreira; SAMORINHA, Catarina, & PRECIOSO, José. (2021). Knowledge, attitudes and preventive behaviors toward COVID-19: a study among higher education students in Portugal. Journal of Health Research, 35(4), 318-328.

BAI, Wei; CAI, Hong; LIU, Shou; LIU, Huanzhong; QI, Han; CHEN, Xu; LIU, Rui; CHEUNG, Teris; SU, Zhaohui; Ng, Chee H.; & Xiang, Yu-Tao. (2021). Attitudes toward COVID-19 vaccines in Chinese college students. International Journal of Biological Sciences, 17(6), 1469-1475.

BARELLO, Serena; NANIA, Tiziana; DELLAFIORE, Federica; GRAFFIGNA, Guendalina; & CARUSO, Rosario. (2020). ‘Vaccine hesitancy’ among university students in Italy during the COVID-19 pandemic. European Journal of Epidemiology, 35(8), 781-783.

COPELAND, William E.; MCGINNIS, Ellen; BAI, Yang; ADAMS, Zoe; NARDONE, Hilary; DEVADANAM, Vinay; RETTEW, Jeffrey; & HUDZIAK, Jim J. (2021). Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on college student mental health and wellness. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 60(1), 134-141.e2.

COREY, Lawrence; MASCOLA, John R.; FAUCI, Anthony. S.; & COLLINS, Francis. S. (2020). A strategic approach to COVID-19 vaccine R&D. Science, 368(6494), 948-950.

DETOC, Maëlle; BRUEL, Sébastien; FRAPPE, Paul; TARDY, Bernard; BOTELHO-NEVERS, Elisabeth; & GAGNEUX-BRUNON, Amandine. (2020). Intention to participate in a COVID-19 vaccine clinical trial and to get vaccinated against COVID-19 in France during the pandemic. Vaccine, 38(45), 7002-7006.

DEVELLIS, Robert. F.; & THORPE, Carolyn. (2012). Scale Development: Theory and Applications. Sage.

FAN, Chia-Wei; CHEN, I-Hua; KO, Nai-Ying; YEN, Cheng-Fang; LIN, Chung-Ying; GRIFFITHS, Mark D.; & PAKPOUR, Amir H. (2021). Extended theory of planned behavior in explaining the intention to COVID-19 vaccination uptake among mainland Chinese university students: an online survey study. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 17(10), 3413-3420.

GRAFFIGNA, Guendalina; PALAMENGHI, Lorenzo; BOCCIA, Stefania; & BARELLO, Serena. (2020). Relationship between citizens’ health engagement and intention to take the COVID-19 vaccine in Italy: A Mediation Analysis. Vaccines, 8(576), 1-11.

GRAHAM, Barney S. (2020). Rapid COVID-19 vaccine development. Science, 368(6494), 945-946.

GRAUPENSPERGER, Scott; ABDALLAH, Devon A.; & LEE, Christine M. (2021). Social norms and vaccine uptake: College students’ COVID vaccination intentions, attitudes, and estimated peer norms and comparisons with influenza vaccine. Vaccine, 39(15), 2060-2067.

GRAUPENSPERGER, Scott; LEE, Christine M.; & LARIMER, Mary E. (2021). Young adults underestimate how well peers adhere to COVID-19 preventive behavioral guidelines. The Journal of Primary Prevention, 42(3), 309-318.

HARRISON, Emily. A.; & WU, Julia W. (2020). Vaccine confidence in the time of COVID-19. European Journal of Epidemiology, 35(4), 325-330.

HEAD, Katharine J.; KASTING, Monica L.; STURM, Lynne A.; HARTSOCK, Jane A.; & ZIMET, Gregory. (2020). A National Survey Assessing SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination Intentions: Implications for future public health communication efforts. Science Communication, 42(5), 698-723.

JAREMEK, Aleksandra; PIECHNIK, Justyna; JUSZCZAK, Aleksandra; & NIERADKO-IWANICKA, Barbara (2021). The attitude of students of Lublin universities to vaccination in the COVID-19 period. Polish Journal of Public Health, 131(1), 16-19.

KECOJEVIC, Aleksandar; BASCH, Corey H.; SULLIVAN, Marianne; CHEN, Yen-Tyng; & DAVI, Nicole K. (2021). COVID-19 Vaccination and intention to vaccinate among a sample of college students in New Jersey. Journal of Community Health, 1.

KECOJEVIC, Aleksandar; BASCH, Corey H.; SULLIVAN, Marianne; & DAVI, Nicole K. (2020). The impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on mental health of undergraduate students in New Jersey, cross-sectional study. PLOS ONE, 15(9), e0239696.

LUCIA, Victoria C.; KELEKAR, Arati; & AFONSO, Nelia M. (2021). COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among medical students. Journal of Public Health, 43(3), 445-449.

MANNING, Mary Lou; GEROLAMO, Angela M.; MARINO, Marie Ann; HANSON-ZALOT, Mary E.; & POGORZELSKA-MAZIARZ, Monika. (2021). COVID-19 vaccination readiness among nurse faculty and student nurses. Nursing Outlook, 69(4), 565-573.

PASTORINO, Roberta; VILLANI, Leonardo; MARIANI, Marco; RICCIARDI, Walter; GRAFFIGNA, Guendalina; & BOCCIA, Stefania. (2021). Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Flu and COVID-19 Vaccination intentions among university students. Vaccines, 9(2), 1-9.

QIAO, Shan; FRIEDMAN, Daniela. B.; TAM, Cheuk Chi; ZENG, Chengbo; & LI, Xiaoming. (2020). Vaccine acceptance among college students in South Carolina: Do information sources and trust in information make a difference? MedRxiv.

QIAO, Shan; TAM, Cheuk Chi; & LI, Xiaoming. (2021). Risk exposures, risk perceptions, negative attitudes toward general vaccination, and covid-19 vaccine acceptance among college students in South Carolina. American Journal of Health Promotion, 089011712110284.

REITER, Paul L.; PENNELL, Michael L.; & KATZ, Mira L. (2020). Acceptability of a COVID-19 vaccine among adults in the United States: How many people would get vaccinated? Vaccine, 38(42), 6500-6507.

SHERMAN, Susan M.; SMITH, Louise E.; SIM, Julius; AMLÔT, Richard; CUTTS, Megan; DASCH, Hannah; RUBIN, G. James; & SEVDALIS, Nick. (2021). COVID-19 vaccination intention in the UK: results from the COVID-19 vaccination acceptability study (CoVAccS), a nationally representative cross-sectional survey. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 17(6), 1612-1621.

WEBB, Thomas L.; & SHEERAN, Paschal (2006). Does changing behavioral intentions engender behavior change? A meta-analysis of the experimental evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 132(2), 249-268.

WISE, Toby; ZBOZINEK, Tomislav D.; MICHELINI, Giorgia; HAGAN, Cindy C.; & MOBBS, Dean. (2020). Changes in risk perception and self-reported protective behaviour during the first week of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States. Royal Society Open Science, 7(9), 200742.

YE, Lixia; FANG, Ting; CUI, Jun; ZHU, Guanghui; MA, Rui; SUN, Yexiang; LI, Pingping; LI, Hui; DONG, Hongjun; & XU, Guozhang. (2021). The intentions to get vaccinated against influenza and actual vaccine uptake among diabetic patients in Ningbo, China: identifying motivators and barriers. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 17(1), 106.

YU, Yanqiu; LUO, Sitong; MO, Phoenix Kit-han; WANG, Suhua; ZHAO, Junfeng; ZHANG, Guohua; LI, Lijuan; LI, Liping; & LAU, Joseph Tak-fai. (2021). Prosociality and social responsibility were associated with intention of COVID-19 vaccination among university students in China. International Journal of Health Policy and Management, 1-8.