Contenido principal del artículo

Laura Barrero-Santiago
España
Salvador Santiago-Pescador
España
Alejandro Santos-Lozano
España
Lorenzo Antonio Justo-Cousiño
Universidad Europea Miguel de Cervantes
España
Vol. 6 Núm. 3 (2020), Revisiones, Páginas 555-583
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17979/sportis.2020.6.3.5968
Recibido: feb 2, 2020 Aceptado: ago 12, 2020 Publicado: sep 1, 2020
Derechos de autoría Cómo citar

Resumen

La rotura del ligamento cruzado anterior (LCA) es una de las lesiones más comunes, que constituyen casi el 50% del total de las lesiones ligamentosas de rodilla. A lo largo de los años se han creado diversas guías prácticas y protocolos para su tratamiento. Sin embargo, aunque varios estudios confirman los beneficios que aporta una rehabilitación precoz, no existe consenso sobre qué ejercicios activos se deberían realizar en fases tempranas. Por ello, en este estudio se ha llevado a cabo una revisión sistemática con el objetivo de analizar ensayos clínicos aleatorizados que han aplicado ejercicios en la rehabilitación precoz de una reconstrucción del LCA. Este estudio pretende determinar si el ejercicio activo en fase aguda posquirúrgica reporta beneficios y acorta el tiempo de tratamiento. Los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas en las diferentes variables (fuerza, dolor, rango de movimiento, laxitud ligamentaria y circunferencia del miembro inferior) en comparación con la valoración inicial de los respectivos protocolos. Por lo tanto, el ejercicio activo parece ser efectivo para favorecer la recuperación en fases tempranas posquirúrgicas, destacando el trabajo de potenciación de cuádriceps en fase precoz para la ganancia de rango de movimiento y disminución de la sintomatología. Actualmente no existen suficientes estudios realizados durante las dos primeras semanas posquirúrgicas para confirmar los beneficios del ejercicio activo.

Descargas

Los datos de descarga no están aún disponibles.

Detalles del artículo

Referencias

Adams, D., Logerstedt, D., Hunter-Giordano, A., Axe, M. J., y Snyder-Mackler, L. (2012). Current concepts for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A criterion-based rehabilitation progression. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther., 42(7), 601-614. doi: https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2012.3871

Alanís-Blancas, L. M., Zamora-Muñoz, P., y Cruz-Miranda, Á. (2012). Ruptura de ligamento cruzado anterior en mujeres deportistas. An Med (Mex), 57(2), 93-97. doi: https://doi.org/10.1109/POWERENG.2009.4915234

Alberton, C. L., Cadore, E. L., Pinto, S. S., Tartaruga, M. P., da Silva, E. M., y Kruel, L. F. M. (2011). Cardiorespiratory, neuromuscular and kinematic responses to stationary running performed in water and on dry land. Eur J Appl Physiol., 111(6), 1157-1166. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-010-1747-5

Andrade, R., Pereira, R., Van Cingel, R., Staal, J. B., y Espregueira-Mendes, J. (2019). How should clinicians rehabilitate patients after ACL reconstruction? A systematic review of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) with a focus on quality appraisal (AGREE II). Br J Sports Med. doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2018-100310

Arroll, B., Robb, G. S. E. (2003). The diagnosis and management of soft tissue knee injuries: internal derangements. New Zealand Guidelines Group, 1-99.

Bleakley, C. M., Glasgow, P., y MacAuley, D. C. (2012). PRICE needs updating, should we call the POLICE? Br J Sports Med., 46(4), 220-221. doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2011-090297

Castillo-Lozano, R., Cuesta-Vargas, A., y Gabel, C. P. (2014). Analysis of arm elevation muscle activity through different movement planes and speeds during in-water and dry-land exercise. J Shoulder Elbow Surg., 23(2), 159-165. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2013.04.010

Cuesta-Vargas, A. I., Cano-Herrera, C. L., y Heywood, S. (2013). Analysis of the neuromuscular activity during rising from a chair in water and on dry land. J Electromyogr Kinesiol., 23(6), 1446-1450. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2013.06.001

De Carlo, M. S., Shelbourne, K. D., McCarroll, J. R., y Rettig, A. C. (1992). Traditional versus accelerated rehabilitation following ACL Reconstruction: A one-year follow-up. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther., 15(6), 309-316. doi: https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.1992.15.6.309

De Morton, N. A. (2009). The PEDro scale is a valid measure of the methodological quality of clinical trials: a demographic study. Aust J Physiother., 55(2), 129-133. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0004-9514(09)70043-1

Frobell, R. B., Roos, H. P., Roos, E. M., Roemer, F. W., Ranstam, J., y Lohmander, L. S. (2013). Treatment for acute anterior cruciate ligament tear: Five-year outcome of randomised trial. BMJ, 346(7895). doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.f232

Glasgow, P., Phillips, N., y Bleakley, C. (2015). Optimal loading: key variables and mechanisms. Br J Sports Med., 49(5), 278-279. doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2014-094443

Graf, B. K., Ott, J. W., Lange, R. H., y Keene, J. S. (1994). Risk factors for restricted motion after anterior cruciate reconstruction. Orthopedics, 17(10), 909-912.

Hauger, A. V., Reiman, M. P., Bjordal, J. M., Sheets, C., Ledbetter, L., y Goode, A. P. (2018). Neuromuscular electrical stimulation is effective in strengthening the quadriceps muscle after anterior cruciate ligament surgery. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc., 26(2), 399-410. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-017-4669-5

Hewett, T. E., Myer, G. D., Ford, K. R., Paterno, M. V, y Quatman, C. E. (2016). Mechanisms, prediction, and prevention of ACL injuries: Cut risk with three sharpened and validated tools. J Orthop Res., 34(11), 1843-1855. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/jor.23414

Hooper, D.M., Morrissey, M.C., Drechsler, W., Morrissey, D. K. J. (2001). Open and closed kinetic chain exercises in the early period after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Am J Sports Med., 29(2), 167-174. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/03635465010290020901

Hurd, W. J., Axe, M. J., y Snyder-Mackler, L. (2008). Influence of age, gender, and injury mechanism on the development of dynamic knee stability after acute ACL rupture. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther., 38(2), 36-41. doi: https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2008.38.1.A36

Jewiss, D., Ostman, C., y Smart, N. (2017). Open versus closed kinetic chain exercises following an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Sports Med (Hindawi Publ Corp), 1-10. doi: https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4721548

Kaeding, C. C., Léger-St-Jean, B., y Magnussen, R. A. (2017). Epidemiology and diagnosis of anterior cruciate ligament injuries. Clin Sports Med., 36(1), 1-8. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csm.2016.08.001

Kim, K.-M., Croy, T., Hertel, J., y Saliba, S. (2010). Effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction on quadriceps strength, function, and patient-oriented outcomes: A Systematic Review. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther., 40(7), 383-391. doi: https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2010.3184

Labanca, L., Rocchi, J. E., Laudani, L., Guitaldi, R., Virgulti, A., Mariani, P. P., y Macaluso, A. (2017). Neuromuscular electrical stimulation superimposed on movement early after ACL surgery. Med Sci Sports Exerc., 50(3), 407-416. doi: https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000001462

Liberati, A., Altman, D. G., Tetzlaff, J., Mulrow, C., Gøtzsche, P. C., Ioannidis, J. P. et al (2009). The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration. PLoS Med., 21;6(7). doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000100

Lieber, R. L., Silva, P. D., y Daniel, D. M. (1996). Equal effectiveness of electrical and volitional strength training for quadriceps femoris muscles after anterior cruciate ligament surgery. J Orthop Res., 14(1), 131-138. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/jor.1100140121

Logerstedt, D. S., Scalzitti, D., Risberg, M. A., Engebretsen, L., Webster, K. E., Feller, J., et al. (2017). Knee stability and movement coordination impairments: Knee ligament sprain revision 2017. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. doi: https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2017.0303

López Villar, C., y Alvariñas Villaverde, M. (2011). Sample Analysis from a Gender Perspective in Spanish Physical Activity and Sports Science Research Journals. Apunts. Educación Física y Deportes, 106, 62-70. doi: https://doi.org/10.5672/apunts.2014-0983.es.(2011/4).106.08

Meuffels, D. E., Poldervaart, M. T., Diercks, R. L., Fievez, A. W. F. M., Patt, T. W., Van Der Hart, C. P., et al. (2012). Guideline on anterior cruciate ligament injury. Acta Orthop, 83(4), 379-386. doi: https://doi.org/10.3109/17453674.2012.704563

Moritani, T., Nakamura, T., Tamaki, A., Hasegawa, S., Kobayashi, M., y Arai, R. (2011). Effect of early implementation of electrical muscle stimulation to prevent muscle atrophy and weakness in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. J Electromyogr Kinesiol., 21(4), 622-630. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2011.01.005

Morrissey, M. C., Drechsler, W. I., Morrissey, D., Knight, P. R., Armstrong, P. W., y Mcauliffe, T. B. (2002). Effects of distally fixated versus resistance training on knee pain in the early period after anterior, Phys Ther., 82(1), 35-43. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/ptj/82.1.35

Morrissey, M.C., Hudson, Z.L., Drechsler, W.I., Coutts, F.J., Knight, PR K. J. (2000). Effects of open versus closed kinetic chain training on knee laxity in the early period after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Knee Surgery, Sport Traumatol Arthrosc, 8(6), 343-348. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s001670000161

Musahl, V., y Karlsson, J. (2019). Anterior cruciate ligament tear. N Engl J Med., 380(24), 2341-2348. doi: https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMcp1805931

Nussbaum, E. L., Houghton, P., Anthony, J., Rennie, S., Shay, B. L., y Hoens, A. M. (2017). Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for treatment of muscle impairment: Critical review and recommendations for clinical practice. Physiother Can., 69(5): 1-76. doi: https://doi.org/10.3138/ptc.2015-88

Palmieri-Smith, R. M., Thomas, A. C., y Wojtys, E. M. (2008). Maximizing Quadriceps Strength After ACL Reconstruction. Clin Sports Med., 27(3), 405-424. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csm.2008.02.001

Risberg, M. A., Holm, I., Tjomsland, O., Ljunggren, E., y Ekeland, A. (1999). Prospective study of changes in impairments and disabilities after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther., 29(7), 400-412. doi: https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.1999.29.7.400

Risberg, M.A., Lewek, M, S. (2004). A systematic review of evidence for anterior cruciate ligament rehabilitation: how much and what type? Phys Ther Sport., 5(3), 125-145. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ptsp.2004.02.003

Robb, G., Reid, D., Arroll, B., Jackson, R. T., y Goodyear-Smith, F. (2007). General practitioner diagnosis and management of acute knee injuries: summary of an evidence-based guideline. N Z Med J., 16;120 (1249):U2419.

Samuelsen, B. T., Webster, K. E., Johnson, N. R., Hewett, T. E., y Krych, A. J. (2017). Hamstring autograft versus patellar tendon autograft for ACL reconstruction: Is there a difference in graft failure rate? A Meta-analysis of 47,613 patients. Clin Orthop Relat Res., 475(10), 2459-2468. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11999-017-5278-9

Shaw, T., Williams, M. T., y Chipchase, L. S. (2005). Do early quadriceps exercises affect the outcome of ACL reconstruction? A randomised controlled trial. Aust J Physiother., 51(1), 9-17. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0004-9514(05)70048-9

Slemenda, C., Brandt, K. D., Heilman, D. K., Mazzuca, S., Braunstein, E. M., Katz, B. P., y Wolinsky, F. D. (1997). Quadriceps weakness and osteoarthritis of the knee. Ann Intern Med., 15;127(2), 97-104. doi: https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-127-2-199707150-00001

Stanley, L. E., Kerr, Z. Y., Dompier, T. P., y Padua, D. A. (2016). Sex differences in the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament, and meniscal injuries in collegiate and high school sports: 2009-2010 through 2013-2014. Am J Sports Med., 44(6), 1565-1572. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546516630927

Sutton, K. M., y Bullock, J. M. (2013). Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture: Differences Between Males and Females. J Am Acad Orthop Surg., 21(1), 41-50. doi: https://doi.org/10.5435/JAAOS-21-01-41

Thomas, A. C., Wojtys, E. M., Brandon, C., y Palmieri-Smith, R. M. (2016). Muscle atrophy contributes to quadriceps weakness after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. J Sci Med Sport., 19(1), 7-11. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2014.12.009

Tovin, B. J., Wolf, S. L., Greenfield, B. H., Crouse, J., y Woodfin, B. A. (1994). Comparison of the effects of exercise in water and on land on the rehabilitation of patients with intra-articular anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. Phys Ther., 74(8), 710-719. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/ptj/74.8.710

Van Melick, N., van Cingel, R. E. H., Brooijmans, F., Neeter, C., van Tienen, T., Hullegie, W., y Nijhuis-van der Sanden, M. W. G. (2016). Evidence-based clinical practice update: practice guidelines for anterior cruciate ligament rehabilitation based on a systematic review and multidisciplinary consensus. Br J Sports Med., 50(24), 1506-1515. doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-095898

Van Tulder, M., Furlan, A., Bombardier, C., y Bouter, L. (2003). Updated method guidelines for systematic reviews in the Cochrane Collaboration Back Review Group. Spine. doi: https://doi.org/10.1097/00007632-200306150-00014

Voskanian, N. (2013). ACL Injury prevention in female athletes: review of the literature and practical considerations in implementing an ACL prevention program. Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med., 6(2), 158-163. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12178-013-9158-y

Widner, M., Dunleavy, M., y Lynch, S. (2019). Outcomes following ACL reconstruction based on graft type: Are all grafts equivalent? Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med., 12 (4), 460-465. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12178-019-09588-w

Wright, R. W., Haas, A. K., Anderson, J., Calabrese, G., Cavanaugh, J., Hewett, T. E. (2015). Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Rehabilitation: MOON Guidelines. Sports Health, 7(3), 239-243. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/1941738113517855

Xie, X., Liu, X., Chen, Z., Yu, Y., Peng, S., y Li, Q. (2015). A Meta-Analysis of bone–patellar tendon–bone autograft versus four-strand hamstring tendon autograft for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The Knee, 22(2), 100-110. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.knee.2014.11.014