Main Article Content

José Manuel Núñez-Sánchez
Universidad de Málaga
Ramón Gómez-Chacón
CEU Cardenal Spínola
Carmen Jambrino-Maldonado
Universidad de Málaga
Jerónimo García-Fernández
Universidad de Sevilla
Vol. 11 No. 1 (2022), Articles, pages 51-72
Submitted: Feb 22, 2022 Accepted: Apr 5, 2022 Published: Jun 28, 2022
How to Cite


The COVID-19 pandemic and the increase of working-from-home have drastically changed many aspects of work life, causing very negative effects on employees' physical and psycho-social well-being. Healthy organisations have healthy employees, who have at least five psycho-social strengths of engagement, self-efficacy, resilience, optimism and hope, which are reinforced by physical activity, relating to each other in a positive way and leading to numerous benefits for the company. These strengths are being weakened by the pandemic, and the aim of this empirical study is to analyse through a case study the effects of an updated corporate wellness programme in times of pandemic on these strengths of the healthy employee. The sample was of 251 employees, 91 women and 160 men. The instruments used were the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the adaptation of the Healthy and Resilient Organization questionnaire. The results indicated that workers with high physical activity, higher seniority, well guided by supervisors, as well as a comprehensive (multi-component) well-being programme, not only physical but also psycho-social, and with the use of different digital tools (an App is not enough), can mitigate these negative effects. Whereas companies are grappling with reduced employee engagement among other harmful psychosocial and physical effects, this case study suggests that a good corporate well-being programme could help mitigate these detrimental consequences for their workforce and be helpful for the company to adapt to this rapidly changing workplace.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details


Altena, E., Baglioni, C., Espie, C. A., Ellis, J., Gavriloff, D., Holzinger, B., ... & Riemann, D. (2020). Dealing with sleep problems during home confinement due to the COVID‐19 outbreak: Practical recommendations from a task force of the European CBT‐I Academy. Journal of Sleep Research, 29(4), e13052. DOI:

Bailey, C., Madden, A., Alfes, K., & Fletcher, L. (2017). The meaning, antecedents and outcomes of employee engagement: A narrative synthesis. International Journal of Management Reviews, 19(1), 31–53. DOI:

Bakker, A. B., Schaufeli, W. B., Leiter, M. P., & Taris, T. W. (2008) Work engagement: An emerging concept in occupational health psychology. Work Stress, 22, 187–200. DOI:

Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2017). Job demands–resources theory: taking stock and looking forward. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 22(3), 273. DOI:

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.

Bandura, A. (1998). Health promotion from the perspective of social cognitive theory. Psychology and Health, 13, 623-649. DOI:

Bartunek, J. M., Rynes, S. L., & Ireland, R. D. (2006). What makes management research interesting, and why does it matter? Academy of Management Journal, 49(1), 9-15. DOI:

Basinska-Zych, A., & Springer, A. (2021). Organizational and Individual Outcomes of Health Promotion Strategies-A Review of Empirical Research. International Journal of Environment Research and Public Health, 18, 383. DOI:

Bell, E., Bryman, A., & Harley, B. (2018). Business research methods. Oxford University Press.

Bezner, J. R., Franklin, K. A., Lloyd, L. K., & Crixell, S. H. (2020). Effect of group health behaviour change coaching on psychosocial constructs associated with physical activity among university employees. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 18(1), 93-107. DOI:

Bouziri, H., Smith, D. R., Descatha, A., Dab, W., & Jean, K. (2020). Working from home in the time of covid-19: how to best preserve occupational health? Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 77(7), 509-510. DOI:

Brown, W. J., Trost, S. G., Bauman, A., Mummery, K., & Owen, N. (2004). Test-retest reliability of four physical activity measures used in population surveys. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 7(2), 205-215. DOI:

Caniëls, M. C., Semeijn, J. H., & Renders, I. H. (2018). Mind the mindset! The interaction of proactive personality, transformational leadership and growth mindset for engagement at work. Career Development International, 23(1), 48-66. DOI:

Carnevale, J. B., & Hatak, I. (2020). Employee adjustment and well-being in the era of COVID-19: Implications for human resource management. Journal of Business Research, 116, 183-187. DOI:

Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., & Segerstrom, S. C. (2010). Optimism. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(7), 879-889. DOI:

Chen, P., Mao, L., Nassis, G. P., Harmer, P., Ainsworth, B. E., & Li, F. (2020). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): The need to maintain regular physical activity while taking precautions. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 9(2), 103-104. DOI:

Cohn, M. A., Fredrickson, B. L., Brown, S. L., Mikels, J. A., & Conway, A. M. (2009). Happiness unpacked: Positive emotions increase life satisfaction by building resilience. Emotion, 9(3), 361–368. DOI:

Creswell, J. W. (2002). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

De Klerk, J. J., Joubert, M., & Mosca, H. F. (2021). Is working from home the new workplace panacea? Lessons from the COVID-19 pandemic for the future world of work. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 47(1), 1-14. DOI:

De-la-Calle-Durán, M.-C., & Rodríguez-Sánchez, J. L. (2021). Employee Engagement and Wellbeing in Times of COVID-19: A Proposal of the 5Cs Model. International Journal of Environment Research and Public Health, 18, 5470. https:// DOI:

Eurofound (2020). Living, Working and COVID-19: First Findings-April 2020; Publications Office of the European Union: Luxembourg.

Franke, F., Felfe, J., & Pundt, A. (2014). The impact of health-oriented leadership on follower health: Development and test of a new instrument measuring health-promoting leadership. German Journal of Human Resource Management, 28(1-2), 139-161. DOI:

Gerber, M., Jonsdottir, I. H., Lindwall, M., & Ahlborg, G. (2014). Physical activity in employees with differing occupational stress and mental health profiles: A latent profile analysis. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15(6), 649-658. DOI:

Gómez-Chacón, R., García-Fernández, J., Morales Sánchez, V., & Hernández Mendo, A. (2020). Adaptación y validación del cuestionario del empleado saludable del modelo HERO. Anales de Psicología / Annals of Psychology, 36(2), 361–369. DOI:

Gómez-Chacón, R., García-Fernández, J., Morales Sánchez, V., & Hernández Mendo, A. (2021). Healthy employee’s psychosocial strengths in workers according to their physical activity level. Revista Mexicana de Psicología, 38(1), 30–44.

Good, D. J., Lyddy, C. J., Glomb, T. M., Bono, J. E., Brown, K. W., Duffy, M. K., … Lazar, S. W. (2016). Contemplating mindfulness at work: An integrative review. Journal of Management, 42(1), 114–142. DOI:

Grant, L., & Kinman, G. (2013). Bouncing back? Personal representations of resilience of student and experienced social workers. Practice, 25(5), 349-366. DOI:

Helland, M. R., & Winston, B. E. (2005). Towards a deeper understanding of hope and leadership. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 12(2), 42-54. DOI:

Hall, G., Laddu, D. R., Phillips, S. A., Lavie, C. J., & Arena, R. (2021). A tale of two pandemics: How will COVID-19 and global trends in physical inactivity and sedentary behavior affect one another? Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 64, 108. DOI:

Heslin, P. A., & Klehe, U. C. (2006). Self-efficacy. In S. G. Rogelberg (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Industrial/Organizational Psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 705-708). Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Hu, D., Kong, Y., Li, W., Han, Q., Zhang, X., Zhu, L. X., & He, H. G. (2020). Frontline nurses’ burnout, anxiety, depression, and fear statuses and their associated factors during the COVID-19 outbreak in Wuhan, China: A large-scale cross-sectional study. The Lancet 100424. DOI:

Iglesias-Sánchez, P. P., Vaccaro Witt, G. F., Cabrera, F. E., & Jambrino-Maldonado, C. (2020). The contagion of sentiments during the COVID-19 pandemic crisis: The case of isolation in Spain. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(16), 5918. DOI:

Isen, A. M. (2002). Missing in action in the AIM: positive affect’s facilitation of cognitive flexibility, innovation, and problem solving. Psychological Inquiry, 13(1), 57–65.

Kaluza, A. J., Weber, F., van Dick, R., & Junker, N. M. (2021). When and how health‐oriented leadership relates to employee well‐being—The role of expectations, self‐care, and LMX. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 51(4), 404-424. DOI:

Kazekami, S. (2020). Mechanisms to improve labour productivity by performing telework. Telecommunications Policy, 44(2), 1–15. DOI:

Kent, K., Goetzel, R. Z., Roemer, E. C., Prasad, A., & Freundlich, N. (2016). Promoting healthy workplaces by building cultures of health and applying strategic communications. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 58(2), 114-122. DOI:

Kim, J., Lee, S., Chun, S., Han, A., & Heo, J. (2017). The effects of leisure-time physical activity for optimism, life satisfaction, psychological well-being, and positive affect among older adults with loneliness. Annals of Leisure Research, 20(4), 406-415. DOI:

Kniffin, K. M., Narayanan, J., Anseel, F., Antonakis, J., Ashford, S. P., Bakker, A. B., ... & Vugt, M. V. (2021). COVID-19 and the workplace: Implications, issues, and insights for future research and action. American Psychologist, 76(1), 63. DOI:

Knight, C., Patterson, M., & Dawson, J. (2019). Work engagement interventions can be effective: a systematic review. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 28(3), 348-372.: DOI:

Kumar, P. (2021). V-5 Model of Employee Engagement during COVID-19 and Post Lockdown. Vision, 0972262920980878. DOI:

Lancet, T. (2021). A sporting chance: physical activity as part of everyday life. Lancet (London, England), S0140-6736. DOI:

Li, S., Wang, Y., Xue, J., Zhao, N., & Zhu, T. (2020). The impact of COVID-19 epidemic declaration on psychological consequences: a study on active Weibo users. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(6), 2032. DOI:

Liossis, P. L., Shochet, I. M., Millear, P. M., & Biggs, H. (2009). The Promoting Adult Resilience (PAR) Program: The Effectiveness of the Second, Shorter Pilot of a Workplace Prevention Program. Behaviour Change, 26(2), 97-112. DOI:

Llorens, S., Salanova, M., Torrente, P., & Acosta, H. (2013). Interventions to promote Healthy & Resilient Organizations (HERO) from Positive Psychology. In Salutogenic organizations and change (pp. 91-106). Dordrecht: Springer. DOI:

López-Bueno, R., Calatayud, J., Andersen, L. L., Balsalobre-Fernández, C., Casaña, J., Casajús, J. A., ... & López-Sánchez, G. F. (2020). Immediate impact of the COVID-19 confinement on physical activity levels in Spanish adults. Sustainability, 12(14), 5708. DOI:

Luthans, F., Youssef, C. M., & Avolio, B. J. (2007). Psychological capital: Investing and developing positive organizational behavior. Positive Organizational Behavior, 1(2), 9-24. DOI:

Malik, P., & Garg, P. (2020). Learning organization and work engagement: The mediating role of employee resilience. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 31(8), 1071-1094. DOI:

Mantilla-Toloza, S. C., & Gómez-Conesa, A. (2007). International Physical Activity Questionnaire. An adequate instrument in population physical activity monitoring. Revista Iberoamericana de Fisioterapia y Kinesiologia, 10(1), 48-52. DOI:

Mariotto, F. L., Zanni, P. P., & Moraes, G. S. M. (2014) What is the use of a single-case study in management research? Revista de Administración de Empresas, 54, 358–369. DOI:

Masuda, A. D., Holtschalg, C., & Nicklin, J. M. (2017). Why the availability of telecommuting matters: The effects of telecommuting on engagement via goal pursuit. Career Development International, 22(2), 200–219. DOI:

Mathisen, G. E., Brønnick, K., Arntzen, K. J., & Bergh, L. I. V. (2017). Identifying and managing psychosocial risks during organizational restructuring: It’s what you do and how you do it. Safety Science, 100, 20-29. DOI:

Maugeri, G., Castrogiovanni, P., Battaglia, G., Pippi, R., D'Agata, V., Palma, A., ... & Musumeci, G. (2020). The impact of physical activity on psychological health during Covid-19 pandemic in Italy. Heliyon, 6(6), e04315. DOI:

Nelson, D. L., & Simmons, B. L. (2003). Health psychology and work stress: A more positive approach. In J. C. Quick & L. E. Tetrick (Eds.), Handbook of occupational health psychology (pp. 97–119). American Psychological Association. DOI:

Nieman, D. C., & Wentz, L. M. (2019). The compelling link between physical activity and the body’s defence system. Journal of Sport Health Science, 8(3), 201–217. DOI:

Niitsu, K., Houfek, J. F., Barron, C. R., Stoltenberg, S. F., Kupzyk, K. A., & Rice, M. J. (2017). A concept analysis of resilience integrating genetics. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 38(11), 896-906. DOI:

Núñez-Sánchez, J. M., Gómez-Chacón, R., Jambrino-Maldonado, C., & García-Fernández, J. (2021). Corporate Well-Being Programme in COVID-19 Times. The Mahou San Miguel Case Study. Sustainability, 13(11), 6189. DOI:

Ojo, A. O., Fawehinmi, O., & Yusliza, M. Y. (2021). Examining the predictors of resilience and work engagement during the COVID-19 pandemic. Sustainability, 13(5), 2902. DOI:

Ouweneel, E., Le Blanc, P. M., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2013). Do-it-yourself: An online positive psychology intervention to promote positive emotions, self‐efficacy, and engagement at work. Career Development International, 18(2), 173-195. DOI:

Parker, S. L., Jimmieson, N. L., & Johnson, K. M. (2013). General self-efficacy influences affective task reactions during a work simulation: the temporal effects of changes in workload at different levels of control. Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 26(2), 217-239. DOI:

Peláez, M. J., Coo, C., & Salanova, M. (2020). Facilitating Work Engagement and Performance through Strengths-based Micro-Coaching: A controlled trial study. Journal of Happiness Studies, 21,1265–1284. DOI:

Peterson, S. J., & Byron, K. (2008). Exploring the role of hope in job performance: Results from four studies. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior, 29(6), 785-803. DOI:

Pronk, N. P., & Kottke, T. E. (2009). Physical activity promotion as a strategic corporate priority to improve worker health and business performance. Preventive Medicine, 49(4), 316-321. DOI:

Reinwald, M., Zimmermann, S., & Kunze, F. (2021). Working in the Eye of the Pandemic: Local COVID-19 Infections and Daily Employee Engagement. Frontiers Psychology, 12, 654126. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.654126 DOI:

Rivera, M., Shapoval, V., & Medeiros, M. (2021). The relationship between career adaptability, hope, resilience, and life satisfaction for hospitality students in times of Covid-19. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, 29, 100344. DOI:

Robertson, I. T., Cooper, C. L., Sarkar, M., & Curran, T. (2015). Resilience training in the workplace from 2003 to 2014: A systematic review. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 88(3), 533–562. DOI:

Robroek, S. J., Van Lenthe, F. J., Van Empelen, P., & Burdorf, A. (2009). Determinants of participation in worksite health promotion programmes: a systematic review. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 6(1), 1-12. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-6-26 DOI:

Salanova, M. (2020). How to survive Covid-19? Notes from organisational resilience (¿Cómo sobrevivir al Covid-19? Apuntes desde la resiliencia organizacional). International Journal of Social Psychology, 35(3), 670-676. DOI:

Salanova, M. (2021). Work engagement: a key to HEROs–healthy and resilient organizations. In A Research Agenda for Employee Engagement in a Changing World of Work. Edward Elgar Publishing. DOI:

Salanova, M., Grau, R., Cifre, E., & Llorens, S. (2000). Computer training, frequency of use and burnout: the moderating role of computer self-efficacy. Computers in Human Behaviour, 16(6), 575-590. DOI:

Salanova, M., Grau, R., & Martinez, I. (2005) Demandas laborales y conductas de afrontamiento: el rol modulador de la autoeficacia profesional. Psicothema, 17(3), 390-395.

Salanova, M., & Schaufeli, W. (2009). El engagement en el trabajo: cuando el trabajo se convierte en pasión. Alianza Editorial: Madrid.

Salanova, M., Llorens, S., Cifre, E., & Martínez, I. M. (2012). We need a HERO! Towards a validation of the Healthy & Resilient Organization (HERO) model. Group & Organization Management, 37(6), 785–822. doi: 10.1177/1059601112470405. DOI:

Sallis, R., Young, D. R., Tartof, S. Y., Sallis, J. F., Sall, J., Li, Q., Smith, G. N., & Cohen, D. A. (2021). Physical inactivity is associated with a higher risk for severe COVID-19 outcomes: A study in 48,440 adult patients. British Journal Sports Medicine, 1-8, doi:10.1136/bjsports-2021-104080. DOI:

Schaufeli, W. B., Salanova, M., Gonzalez-Roma, V., & Bakker, A. B. (2002). The measurement of engagement and burnout: a two-sample confirmatory factor analytic approach. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3(1), 71-92. DOI:

Schneider, B., Yost, A. B., Kropp, A., Kind, C., & Lam, H. (2018). Workforce engagement: What it is, what drives it, and why it matters for organisational performance. Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 39(4), 462–480. DOI:

Simbula, S., Guglielmi, D., & Schaufeli, W.B. (2011). A three-wave study of job resources, self-efficacy, and work engagement among Italian schoolteachers. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 20(3), 285–304. DOI:

Ten Brummelhuis, L. L., & Bakker, A. B. (2012). A resource perspective on the work-home interface: The work-home resources model. American Psychologist, 67(7),545–556. DOI:

Trougakos, J. P., Chawla, N., & McCarthy, J. M. (2020). Working in a pandemic: Exploring the impact of COVID-19 health anxiety on work, family, and health outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 105(11), 1234-1245. DOI:

Vander Elst, T., Verhoogen, R., Servu, M., Van den Broeck, A., Baillien, E., & Godderis, L. (2017). Not extent of telecommuting, but job characteristics as proximal predictors of work-related well-being. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 59(10), 180–186. DOI:

Vera, M., Le Blanc, P. M., Taris, T. W., & Salanova, M. (2014). Patterns of engagement: the relationship between efficacy beliefs and task engagement at the individual versus collective level. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 44(2), 133–144. DOI:

Vincent-Höper, S., & Stein, M. (2019). The role of leaders in designing employees’ work characteristics: Validation of the health- and development-promoting leadership behavior questionnaire. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1049. DOI:

Vinkers, C. H., van Amelsvoort, T., Bisson, J. I., Branchi, I., Cryan, J. F., Domschke, K., ... & van der Wee, N. J. (2020). Stress resilience during the coronavirus pandemic. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 35, 12-16. DOI:

Wang, H.-j., Lu, C.-q., & Siu, O.-l. (2015). Job insecurity and job performance: The moderating role of organizational justice and the mediating role of work engagement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(4), 1249–1258. DOI:

Wang, C., Pan, R., Wan, X., Tan, Y., Xu, L., Ho, C. S., & Ho, R. C. (2020). Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(5), 1729. DOI:

Wilson, M. G., Dejoy, D. M., Vandenberg, R. J., Richardson, H. A., & McGrath, A. L. (2004). Work characteristics and employee health and well-being: Test of model of healthy word organization. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77, 565–589. DOI:

Wood, J., Oh, J., Park, J., & Kim, W. (2020). The relationship between work engagement and work–life balance in organizations: A review of the empirical research. Human Resource Development Review, 19(3), 240–262. DOI:

World Health Organization (WHO) (2020). Connecting the world to combat coronavirus, 2020. Available online: (accessed on 20 November 2021)

Xiao, H., Zhang, Y., Kong, D., Li, S., & Yang, N. (2020). The effects of social support on sleep quality of medical staff treating patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in January and February 2020 in China. Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research, 26, e923549–e923541. DOI:

Yıldırım, M., Çiçek, İ., & Şanlı, M. E. (2021). Coronavirus stress and COVID-19 burnout among healthcare staffs: The mediating role of optimism and social connectedness. Current Psychology, 1-9. DOI:

Youssef, C. M., & Luthans, F. (2007). Positive Organizational Behavior in the Workplace: The Impact of Hope, Optimism, and Resilience. Journal of Management, 33(5), 774-800. DOI: