Main Article Content
This study examined the impact of income inequality on female labour force participation in West Africa for the period 2004 to 2016. The study employed the Gini coefficient, the Atkinson index and the Palma ratio as measures of income inequality. For robustness, the study also utilises female employment and female unemployment as measures of female labour force participation. The study employed the instrumental variable fixed effects model with Driscoll and Kraay standard errors to account for simultaneity/reverse causality, serial correlation, groupwise heteroskedasticity and cross-sectional dependence. The empirical results reveal that the three measures of income inequality significantly reduce the participation of women in the labour force in West Africa. The study also revealed that domestic credit, remittances and female education are positively associated with female labour force participation in the sub-region. Further findings reveal that economic development reduces the participation of women in the labour force in West Africa with the U-shaped feminisation theory not valid for the West African region. The study, however, revealed an inverted U-shaped relationship between inequality and female unemployment. Policy recommendations based on these findings are discussed.
Abney, D., and Laya, A. (2018). This is why Women must play a greater role in the Global Economy. Retrieved from World Economic Forum: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2018/01/this-is-why-women-must-play-a-greater-role-in-the-global-economy/
Akinyemi, J., Solanke, B., and Odimegwu, C. (2018). Maternal Employment and Child Survival during the Era of Sustainable Development Goals: Insights from Proportional Hazards Modelling of Nigeria Birth History Data. Annals of Global Health, 84(1), 15-30. https://doi.org/10.29024/aogh.11
Altuzarra, A., Galvez-Galvez, C., and Gonzalez-Flores, A. (2019). Economic Development and Female Labour Force Participation: The case of European Union Countries. Sustainability, 11. https://doi.org/10.3390/su11071962
Amin, S., and DaVanzo, J. (2004). The impact of Wives' Earnings on Earnings Inequality among Married-Couple Households in Malaysia. Journal of Asian Economies, 15, 49-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asieco.2003.12.002
Asiedu, E., and Chimbar, N. (2020). Impact of remittances on male and female labour force participation patterns in Africa: Quasi-experimental evidence from Ghana. Review of Development Economics. https://doi.org/10.1111/rode.12668
Asongu, S., and Odhiambo, N. (2019). Inequality and the Economic Participation of Women in Sub Saharan Africa: An Empirical Investigation. Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute 19/027. https://doi.org/10.1108/AJEMS-01-2019-0016
Azizi, S. (2018). The impact of Workers' Remittances on Human Capital and Labour Supply in Developing Countries. Economic Modelling, 75, 377-396. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econmod.2018.07.011
Becker, G. (1964). Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis, with Special Reference to Education. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Academy for Entrepreneurial Leadership Historical Research Reference in Entrepreneurship.
Becker, G. (1965). A Theory of the Allocation of Time. The Economic Journal, 493-517. https://doi.org/10.2307/2228949
Breen, R., and Salazar, L. (2010). Has increased Women's Educational Attainment led to greater Earnings Inequality in the United Kingdom? A Multivariate Decomposition Analysis. European Sociological Review, 26(2), 143-157. https://doi.org/10.1093/esr/jcp01
Brush, J. (2007). Does Income Inequality lead to more Crime? A Comparison of Cross-sectional and Time-series Analyses of United States Countries. Economics Letters, 96(2), 264-268. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econlet.2007.01.012
Burtless, G. (1999). Effects of Growing Wage Disparities and Changing Family Composition on the US Income Distribution. European Economic Review, 43, 853-865. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0014-2921(98)00099-3
Chapman, K. (2015). Economic Development and Female Labour Force Participation in the Middle East and North Africa: A Test of the 'U' Shape Hypothesis. Gettysburg Economic Review, 8(3), 5-22.
Cobham, A., Schlogl, L., and Summer, A. (2015). Inequality and the Tails: the Palma Proposition and Ratio Revisited. United Nations, Department of Economics and Social Affairs Working Papers 143.
Cox Alcaino, M. L. (2009). Women's Labour Force Participation in Chile, 1854-2000. Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Instituto de Sociologia. Retrieved from https://polisci.mit.edu/files/ps/imce/gradstudents/papers/cox.labor.force.pdf
Del Boca, D., and Pasqua, S. (2003). Employment Patterns of Husbands and Wives and Family Income Distribution in Italy (1977-98). Review of Income and Wealth, 49(2), 221-245. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-4991.00084
Driscoll, J., and Kraay, A. (1998). Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimation with Spatial Dependent Data. Review of Economic and Statistics, 80, 549-560. https://doi.org/10.1162/003465398557825
Efobi, U., Asongu, S., Okafor, C., Tchamyou, V., and Tanankem, B. (2019). Journal of Multinational Remittances, Finance and Industrialisation in Africa. Journal of Multinational Financial Management, 49, 54-66. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mulfin.2019.02.002
Elveren, A., and Elgin, C. (2019). Informality, Inequality and Feminization of Labour. Political Economy Research Institute Working Paper.
Esteve-Volart, B. (n.d.). Gender Discrimination and Growth: Theory and Evidence from India. STICERD Discussion PApers No. DEDPS42.
Field, E., Martinez, J., and Pande, R. (2016). Does Women's anking matter for Women? Evidence from Urban India. International Growth Centre Working Paper S-35306-INC-1.
Forgha, N., and Mbella, M. (2016). Implication of Labour Force Participation Rate on Economic Growth in Cameroon. International Journal of Development and Economic Sustainability, 4(1), 34-47.
Fund, I. M. (2018, May 31). Pursuing Women's Economic Empowerment. Retrieved from https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/Policy-Papers/Issues/2018/05/31/pp053118pursuing-womens-economic-empowerment
Gradin, C., and Tarp, F. (2019). Gender Inequality in Employment in Mozambique. South African Journal of Economics, 87(2), 180-199. https://doi.org/10.1111/saje.12220
Gronau, R. (1982). Inequality of Family Income: Do Wives' Earnings Matter? Population and Development Review, 8, 119-136. https://doi.org/10.2307/2808109
Harkness, S. (2010). The contribution of Women's Employment and Earnings to Household Income Inequality: a Cross-country Analysis. LIS Working Paper Series.
Idowu, O., and Owoeye, T. (2019). The Supply of Female Labour Force Participation in selected African Countries. Business & Social Sciences Journal, 14-30.
Iheonu, C. (2019). Governance and Domestic Investment in Africa. European Journal of Government and Economics, 8(1), 63-80. https://doi.org/10.17979/ejge.2019.8.1.4565
Iheonu, C., Agbutun, S., Omenihu, C., Ihedimma, G., and Osuagwu, V. (2019). The impact of Governance Quality on Mortality Rates in Sub Saharan Africa. African Population Studies, 33(1), 4655-4668. https://doi.org/10.11564/33-1-1353
Ince, M. (2010). How the education affects female labour force? Empirical evidence from Turkey. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 634-639. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.076
Khan, M., and Valatheeswaran, C. (2016). International Migration, Remittances and Labour Force Participation of Left-behind Family Members: A study of Kerala. Margin: The Journal of Applied Economic Research, 10(1), 86-118. https://doi.org/10.1177/0973801015612669
Klasen, S., and Lamanna, F. (2009). The impact of Gender Inequality in Education and Employment on Economic Growth: new evidence for a panel of countries. Feminist Economics, 15(3), 91-132. https://doi.org/10.1080/13545700902893106
Larrimore, J. (2014). Accounting for United States Household Income Inequality Trends: the changing importance of Hosehold Structure and Male and Female Labour Earnings Inequality. Review of Income and Wealth, 60(4). https://doi.org/10.1111/roiw.12043
Mincer, J. (1962). Labour Force Participation of Married Women: A Study of Labour Supply. In Aspects of Labour Economics (pp. 63-105). Princeton University Press.
Nelissen, J. (1990). The Effect of Increased Labour Force Participation of Married Women on the Distribution of Family Income in the Netherlands. De Economist, 138, 47-62. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01718389
Odedokun, M., and Round, J. (n.d.). Determinants of Income Inequality and its effects on Economic Growth: Evidence from African Countries. UNU/WIDER Working Paper No. 103.
Pencavel, J. (2006). A Life Cycle Perspective on Changes in Earnings Inequality among Married Men and Women. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 88(2), 232-242. https://doi.org/10.1162/rest.88.2.232
Perugini, C., and Martino, G. (2008). Income Inequality within European Regions: determinants and effects on Growth. The Review of Income and Wealth, 54(3), 373-406. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4991.2008.00280.x
United Nations. (2018). Leave no one behind: A call to action for gender equality and women’s economic empowerment (UN secretary general’s high-level panel on women’s economic empowerment) . Retrieved from https://www.empowerwomen.org/-/media/files/un%20women/empowerwomen/resources/hlp%20briefs/unhlp%20full%20report.pdf?la=en&vs=2916
Valletta, R. (2006). The ins and outs of Poverty in Advanced Economies: Government Policy and Poverty Dynamics in Canada, Germany, Great Britain, and the United States. Review of Income and Wealth, 52(2), 261-284. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-4991.2006.00187.x
Van der Hoeven, R. (2010). Income Inequality and Employment Revisited: can one make sense of Economic Policy? Journal of Human Development and Capibilities, 11(1), 67-84. https://doi.org/10.1080/19452820903481459
Verick, S. (2014). Female Labour Force Participation in Developing Countries. IZA World of Labour, 37. https://doi.org/10.15185/izawol.87
Verme, P. (2015). Economic Development and Female Labour Force Participation in Middle East and North Africa: A test of the 'U' shape Hypothesis. IZA Journal of Labour and Development, 4(3), 1-21. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40175-014-0025-z
Western, B., Bloome, D., and Percheski, C. (2008). Inequality among American Families with Children, 1975 to 2005. American Sociological Review, 73(6). https://doi.org/10.1177/000312240807300602
Witte, A., and Witt, R. (2001). Crime Causation: Economic Theories. Encyclopaedia of Crime and Justice. New York: Macmillan.
Yakubu, Y. (2010). Factors influencing Female Labour Force Participation in South Africa in 2008. The African Statistical Journal, 11, 85-104.
Zhang, R., and Ben Naceur, S. (2019). Financial Development, Inequality, and Poverty: some International evidence. International Review of Economics & FInance, 61(C), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iref.2018.12.015