Main Article Content

Beatriz Lopez-Bermudez
Universidade da Coruña
María Jesús Freire-Seoane
Universidade da Coruña
Ignacio de la Peña Zarzuelo
Universidade da Coruña
Vol. 7 No. 1 (2018), Articles, pages 85-101
Submitted: Sep 24, 2018 Published: Jun 27, 2018
Copyright How to Cite


Latin American countries have historically had a strong dependence on trade, and are mostly characterized by being exporters of raw materials and importers of manufactured products. This fact has brought about a less negative impact of the world crisis on economic growth, mainly because of the high prices of raw materials.

This paper focuses on this geographical area (the West Coast of Latin America) between 2008 and 2015, and adds to the literature by assessing institutional, port-related and economic factors that influence maritime transport. The analysis makes use of panel data models with fixed and random effects where the Hausman test has been applied in order to define a solid specification of all the ports, as well as to discount the particular peculiarities of each country.

It is shown that the analysis of maritime transport requires the analysis of a number of variables apart from trade (volume of TEUs), infrastructures, superstructures (number of calls, gantry cranes), and that other variables, such as port governance, which are sometimes difficult to quantify, need also to be taken into account.

Article Details


AIS (2017). IHS Markit: Maritime Portal. Retrieved from:

Angamos (2017). Web del Puerto Angamos. Chile. Retrieved from:

AP Esmeraldas (2017). Web Autoridad Portuaria Esmeraldas. Ecuador. Retrieved from:

AP Guayaquil (2017). Web de la Autoridad Portuaria de Guayaquil. Ecuador. Retrieved from:

APM Terminals (2017). Web del Consorcio APM Terminals Callao. Perú Retrieved from:

Arellano, M. (1992). Introducción al análisis econométrico con datos de panel (p. 9222). Banco de España: Servicio de Estudios.

Arellano, M., & Bover, O. (1995). Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models. Journal of Econometrics, 68(1).

Baird, A. (1995). UK port privatisation: in context. In Proceedings of UK Port Privatisation Conference. Scottish Transport Studies Group, 21.

Baird, A. (1999). Analysis of private seaport development: the port of Felixstowe. Transport Policy, 6(2), 109-122.

Baird, A. J. (2000). Port privatisation: objectives, extent, process, and the UK experience. International Journal of Maritime Economics, 2(3), 177-194.

Baird, A. J., & Valentine, V. F. (2006). Port privatisation in the United Kingdom. Research in Transportation Economics, 17, 55-84.

Baltazar, R., & Brooks, M. R. (2001). The governance of port devolution: A tale of two countries. Canadian Public Administration, 42(1), 108-132.

Bernhofen, D.M., El-Sahli, Z. & Kneller, R. (2016). Estimating the effects of the container revolution on world trade. Journal of International Economics, 98, 36-50.

Bitar, S. (2016). Las tendencias mundiales y el futuro de América Latina. ECLAC.

CEPA (2017). Web Comisión Ejecutiva Portuaria Autónoma, El Salvador. Retrieved from :

Chang, V., & Tovar, B. (2014). Efficiency and productivity changes for Peruvian and Chilean ports terminals: A parametric distance functions approach. Transport Policy, 31, 83-94.

Corbett, J.J. & Winebrake, J. (2008). The impacts of globalisation on international maritime transport activity. Globalisation, Transport and the Environment. OECD.

Coronel (2017). Web del Puerto Coronel. Chile. Retrieved from :

Coto-Millan, P., Banos-Pino, J., & Rodriguez-Alvarez, A. (2000). Economic efficiency in Spanish ports: some empirical evidence. Maritime Policy & Management, 27(2), 169-174.

De Langen, P. W., & Pallis, A. A. (2007). Entry barriers in seaports. Maritime Policy and Management, 34(5), 427-440.

DP World Callao (2017). Web de DP World Callao. Perú. Retrieved from :

ECLAC (2014). Statistical Yearbook for Latin America and the Caribbean. Santiago de Chile: United Nations Publications.

ECLAC (2017). Perfil Marítimo y Logístico. Retrieved from :

EP Arica (2017). Web de la Empresa Portuaria Arica. Chile. Retrieved from :

EPA (2017). Web de la Empresa Portuaria Antofagasta. Retrieved from :

EPI (2017). Web de la Empresa Portuaria Iquique. Chile. Retrieved from :

EPQ (2017). Web Empresa Portuaria Quetzal. Retrieved from :

EPSA (2017). Web de la Empresa Portuaria San Antonio. Chile. Retrieved from :

EPSV (2017). Web de la Empresa Portuaria San Vicente –Talcahuano. Chile. Retrieved from :

EPV (2017). Web de la Empresa Portuaria Valparaíso. Chile. Retrieved from :

Fawcett, J. (2006), Port governance and privatization in the United States: public ownership and private operation. Research in Transportation Economics, 17, 207-235.

Fay, M. & Morrison, M. (2006). Infrastructure in Latin America and the Caribbean: recent developments and key challenges. Washington: World Bank.

Goss, G. S. (1998). U.S. Patent No. 5,828,653. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Greene, W. (2001). Estimating econometric models with fixed effects. Department of Economics, Stern School of Business, New York University.

Grossmann, H., Otto, A., Stiller, S. & Wedemeier, J. (2007). Growth potential for maritime trade and ports in Europe. Intereconomics, 42(4).

Guisan, M. C. (2013). Macro-econometric models of supply and demand: industry, trade and wages in 6 countries, 1960-2012. Applied Econometrics and International Development, 13(2), 45-56.

Hausman, J. A. (1978). Specification tests in econometrics. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, 1251-1271.

Hausman, J. A., & Taylor, W. E. (1981). Panel data and unobservable individual effects. Econometrica: Journal of the Econometric Society, 1377-1398.

Hoffman, J. (1999). Las privatizaciones portuarias en América Latina en los 90: Determinantes y Resultados, In Transport Unit, ECLAC. Trabajo presentado en el Seminar of World Bank 1999.

Kenessey, Z. (1987). The primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary sectors of the economy. Review of Income and Wealth, 33(4).

Lee, E. S., & Song, D. W. (2010). Knowledge management for maritime logistics value: discussing conceptual issues. Maritime Policy & Management, 37(6), 563-583.

Lee, M., Longmire, R., Matyas, L. & Harris, M. (1998). Growth convergence: some panel data evidence. Applied Economics, vol. 30, nº 7.

Lirquen (2017). Web del Puerto Lirquén. Chile. Retrieved from :

Notteboom, T. E. & Winkelmans, W. (2001). Structural changes in logistics: how will port authorities face the challenge? Maritime Policy & Management, 28(1).

Notteboom, T., De Langen, P., & Jacobs, W. (2013). Institutional plasticity and path dependence in seaports: interactions between institutions, port governance reforms and port authority routines. Journal of Transport Geography, 27, 26-35.

Núñez-Sánchez, R., & Coto-Millán, P. (2012). The impact of public reforms on the productivity of Spanish ports: A parametric distance function approach. Transport Policy, 24, 99-108.

PCorinto (2017). Web Puerto de Corinto. Retrieved from :

Petit, M. G. (1988). U.S. Patent No. 4,760,837. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Pettit, S. J. (2008) United Kingdom ports policy: changing government attitudes, Marine Policy, 32(4), 719-727.

Pitt, M. M., & Lee, L. F. (1981). The measurement and sources of technical inefficiency in the Indonesian weaving industry. Journal of Development Economics, 9(1), 43-64.

PLP (2017). Web Portal de Logística de Panamá. Retrieved from :

Radelet, S. & Sachs, J. D. (1998). Shipping costs, manufactured exports, and economic growth. American Economic Association Meetings, Harvard University, mimeo.

Ramos-Real, F. J., & Tovar, B. (2010). Productivity change and economies of scale in container port terminals a cost function approach. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy (JTEP), 44(2), 231-246.

Redding, S. (2002). Specialization dynamics. Journal of International Economics, vol. 58, nº 2. Rotterdam, Elsevier.

Rivera-Batiz, L.A. & Romer, P. M. (1991). Economic integration and endogenous growth. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 106(2), 531-555.

Rodrigue, J. P., Comtois, C. & Slack, B. (2013). The geography of transport systems. London: Routledge.

Roll, Y., & Hayuth, Y. E. H. U. D. A. (1993). Port performance comparison applying data envelopment analysis (DEA). Maritime Policy and Management, 20(2), 153-161.

Romer, P. M. (1990). Endogenous technological change. Journal of Political Economy, 98(5-2), 71-102.

Sánchez, R. (2004). Puertos y transporte marítimo en América Latina y el Caribe: un análisis de su desempeño reciente. ECLAC.

Sánchez, R., Jaimurzina, A., Wilmsmeier, G., Pérez-Salas, G., Doerr, O. & Pinto, F. (2015). Transporte maritimo y puertos: desafíos y oportunidades en busca de un desarrollo sostenible en América Latina y el Caribe. ECLAC.

Schmidt, P., & Sickles, R. C. (1984). Production frontiers and panel data. Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, 2(4), 367-374.

SCT (2017) Web Secretaría de Transporte, Gobierno Mexico. Accedido a través de:

Serebrisky, T., Sarriera, J. M., Suárez-Alemán, A., Araya, G., Briceño-Garmendía, C., & Schwartz, J. (2016). Exploring the drivers of port efficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean. Transport Policy, 45, 31-45.

Slack, B. (2007), The terminalisation of seaports, In International Workshop on Ports, Cities and Global Supply Chains, Hong Kong, 2005.

SPCaldera (2017). Web Sociedad Portuaria Puerto Caldera. Retrieved from :

SPRBUN (2017). Frecuencias y Tiempos de Transito. Servicios Regulares de Naves Portacontenedores. Retrieved from :

Tang, L. C., Low, J. M. & Lam, S. W. (2011). Understanding port choice behavior—a network perspective. Networks and Spatial Economics, 11(1).

TCBUEN (2017) Web de la Terminal de Contenedores Buenaventura. Colombia. Retrieved from :

TCQ (2017). Web Terminal Contenedores Quetzal. Retrieved from :

TISUR (2017). Web Puerto de Matarani. Accedido a través de:

TP Euroandinos (2017). Web de Terminales Portuarios Euroandinos. Perú. Retrieved from :

TPSA (2017). Web del Terminal Puerto Arica S.A. Chile. Retrieved from :

Tsinker, G. (2014). Handbook of port and harbor engineering: geotechnical and structural aspects. Springer.

UNCTAD (2017). Review of maritime transport series. Retrieved from :

Verhoeven, P. (2010). A review of port authority functions: towards a renaissance? Maritime Policy and Management, 37(3), 247-270.

World Bank (2017). World Bank Open Data. Retrieved from :