Social capital in Spain: Are there gender inequalities?
Main Article Content
Social capital is an asset for individuals because it grants access to important resources embedded in their social networks. But social capital is not evenly distributed among different groups. Gender groups are analysed in this paper in order to examine if there are differences in diverse indicators of social capital and whether these possible differences remain when control variables are considered. The data used in this paper come from a representative sample of 3,400 people in Spain. The main results show gender differences in the access, mobilisation and type of social networks, as well as in the extent and type of social participation. However, these differences are mostly reduced for the groups in more advantageous social positions, which have the possibility to contact with greater and more varied groups, or which have been educated in less traditional gender roles. In general, gender inequalities in social capital remain for the other groups.
Adler, Paul S. and Seok-Woo Kwon (2002) ‘Social Capital: Prospects for a New Concept’, Academy of Management Review 27(1): 17-40.
Bourdieu, Pierre (1985) ‘The forms of capital’, in John G. Richardson (ed.) Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education. New York, NY: Greenwood Press, pp. 241-258.
Caiazza, Amy and Barbara Gault (2006) ‘Acting from the Heart: Values, Social Capital and Women’s Involvement in Interfaith and Environmental Organizations’, in Brenda O’Neill and Elisabeth Gidengil (eds) Gender and Social Capital. New York, NY: Routledge, pp. 99-126.
Coleman, James (1988) ‘Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital’, American Journal of Sociology 94(Supplement): 95-120.
Dasgupta, Partha and Ismail Serageldin (eds.) (2001) Social capital, a multifaceted approach. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank.
Huanga, Jian, Henriëtte Maassen van den Brinka and Wim Groota (2009) ‘A Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Education on Social Capital’, Economics of Education Review 28(4): 454-464.
Kroll, Christian (2011) ‘Different things make different people happy: examining social capital and subjective well-being by gender and parental status’, Social Indicators Research 104(1) 157-177.
Lin, Nan (2000) ‘Inequality in Social Capital’, Contemporary Sociology 29 (6): 785-795.
Lowndes, Vivien (2006) ‘It´s Not What You’ve Got, But What You Do With It: Women, Social Capital and Political Participation’, in Brenda O’Neill and Elisabeth Gidengil (eds) Gender and Social Capital. New York, NY: Routledge, pp. 213-240.
McPherson, J. Miller and Lynn Smith-Lovin (1982) ‘Women and Weak Ties: Differences by Sex in the Size of Voluntary Organizations’, American Journal of Sociology 87 (4): 883-904.
Molyneux, Maxine (2008) ‘La política de desarrollo y la dimensión de género del capital social’, Papeles 101: 64-79.
Moore, Gwen (1990) ‘Structural Determinants of Men´s and Women’s Personal Networks’, American Sociological Review 55(5): 726-35.
Norris, Pippa and Inglehart, Ronald (2006) ‘Gendering Social Capital. Bowling in Women’s Leagues?’, in Brenda O’Neill and Elisabeth Gidengil (eds) Gender and Social Capital. New York, NY: Routledge, pp. 73-98.
Putnam, Robert D. (1995) ‘Bowling alone: America’s declining social capital’, Journal of Democracy 6(1): 65-78.
Putnam, Robert D. (2000) Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
Stolle, Dietlind and Michele Micheletti (2006) ‘The Gender Gap Reversed: Political Consumerism as a Women-Friendly Form of Civic and Political Engagement’ in Brenda O’Neill and Elisabeth Gidengil (eds) Gender and Social Capital. New York, NY: Routledge, pp. 45-72.
Timberlake, Sharon (2005) ‘Social capital and gender in the workplace’, Journal of Management Development 25(1): 34-44.