Problemas de externalização e internalização em pré-adolescentes e vinculação aos pais || Externalizing and internalizing problems in pre-adolescents and attachment to parents

Teresa Sousa-Machado, Carine Diogo

Resumen


Os comportamentos de externalização e internalização na infância e na adolescência refletem um mal-estar do sujeito, que muitas vezes o próprio não sabe explicar, mas que se traduz noutras áreas da vida. A publicação recorrente das elevadas percentagens destes problemas, nestas idades, suscita a necessidade de estudos periódicos em amostras de comunidade, para que se possa sinalizar e intervir precocemente. A vinculação insegura aos pais é um dos fatores associado à emergência destes problemas. Apresentamos um estudo exploratório, com o Questionário de Capacidades e Dificuldades (SDQ) e o Inventário de Vinculação a Pais e Pares (IPPA), das relações entre problemas de externalização, problemas de internalização e vinculação aos pais, reportados por pré-adolescentes portugueses, numa amostra de 258 sujeitos, 124 rapazes (48.1 %), e 134 raparigas (51.9 %), entre os 9 e 12 anos (M = 10.34; DP = 0.88). Estudou-se a relação entre a presença de problemas de comportamento reportados pelos pré-adolescentes e os mesmos problemas reportados pelos seus pais, tendo-se obtido correlações positivas e significativas entre ambas as avaliações. Maior segurança na vinculação aos pais (i.e., maiores valores nas dimensões “Aceitação mútua-compreensão”, “Comunicação-proximidade afetiva” e menores no “Afastamento-rejeição”) correlaciona negativamente com os problemas de comportamento reportados pelos próprios, reforçando a importância da segurança das relações de vinculação aos pais na manutenção de comportamentos mais adaptados nos adolescentes


Palabras clave


vinculação aos pais, problemas de externalização, problemas de internalização, pré-adolescentes

Texto completo:

PDF (Português)

Referencias


Aikins, J. W., Howes, C., & Hamilton, C. (2009). Attachment stability and the emergence of unresolved representations during adolescence. Attachment and Human Development, 11(5), 491-512. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616730903017019

Aken, F. D., van Hoek, S., Michorius, E., & Vergeer, N. A. A. (2013). Relationship between parenting practices and problem behavior in 11 and 12 year old boys and girls. Social Cosmos, 4(2), 97-110. http://persistent-identifier.nl/?identifier=URN:NBN:NL:UI:10-1-114578

Appleyard, K., Egeland, B., van Dulmen, M. H. M., & Sroufe, L. A. (2005). When more is not better: the role of cumulative risk in child behavior outcomes. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 46(3), 235-245. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2004.00351.x

Armsden, G., & Greenberg, M. T. (1987). The Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment: Relationships to well-being in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 16(5), 427-454. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02202939

Arnett, J. J. (1999). Adolescent storm and stress, reconsidered. American Psychologist, 54(5), 317-326.

Becker, A., Woerner, W., Hasselhorn, M., Banaschewski, T., & Rothenberger, A. (2004). Validation of the parent and teacher SDQ in a clinical sample. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry,13-II/11-II/16. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-004-2003-5

Blandon, A., Calkins, S., Grimm, K., Keane, S., & O’Brien, M. (2010). Testing a developmental cascade model of emotional and social competence and early peer acceptance. Development and Psychopathology, 22(4), 734-748. https://doi.org/doi:10.1017/S0954579410000428

Björnsdotter, A., Enebrink, P., & Ghaderi, A. (2013). Psychometric properties of online administered parental strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), and normative data based on combined online and paper-and-pencil administration. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 7(40), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/1753-2000-7-40

Code, M. N., Bernes, K. B., Gunn, T. M., & Bardick, A. D. (2006). Adolescents’ perceptions of career concern: Student discouragement in career development. Canadian Journal of Counselling, 40(3), 160-174. http://cjc-rcc.ucalgary.ca/cjc/index.php/rcc/article/view/298

De Vries, S. L. A., Hoeve, M., Stams, G. J. J. M., &, Asscher, J. J. (2016). Adolescent-parent attachment and externalizing behavior: The mediating role of individual and social factors. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44, 283-294. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-015-9999-5

Dishion, T. J., & Mauricio, A. M. (2016). The family check-up model as prevention and treatment of adolescent drug (ab)use. The intervention strategy, outcomes, and implementation model. In M. J. Van Ryzin, K. L. Kumpfer, G. M. Fosco., & M. T. Greenberg (Eds.), Family-based prevention programs for children and adolescents. Theory, research, and large-scale dissemination. New York: Psychology Press.

Duchesne, S., & Larose, S. (2007). Adolescent parental attachment and academic motivation and performance in early adolescence. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37(7), 1501-1521. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.2007.00224.x

Farrington, D. P. (2011). Family influences on delinquency. In D. W Springer & A. R. Roberts (Eds.), Juvenile justice and delinquency (chap.10). Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Festas, M. I., Seixas, A. M., Matos, A., & Fernandes, P. (2014). Estudo comparativo da carga horária em Portugal e noutros países. Lisboa: Fundação Manuel dos Santos.

Flouri, E., & Sarmadi, Z. (2016). Prosocial behavior and childhood trajectories of internalizing and externalizing problems: The role of neighborhood and school contexts. Developmental Psychology, 52(2), 253-258. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000076

Galambos, N. L., Barker, E. T., & Almeida, D. M. (2003). Parents do matter: Trajectories of change in externalizing and internalizing problems in early adolescence. Child Development, 74(2), 578-594. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.7402017

Giannakopoulos, G., Dimitrakaki, C., Papadopoulou,, H., Tzavara,C., Kolaitis,G., Ravens-Sieberer, U., & Tountas, Y. (2013). Reliability and validity of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in Greek adolescents and their parents. Health, 5(11), 1774-1783. https://doi.org/10.4236/health.2003.511239

Goodman, R. (1997). The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: A research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38(5), 581-586. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1997.tb01545.x (Tradução portuguesa de Fonseca, Loureiro, Gaspar, & Fleitlich, in, http://www.sdqinfo.com)

Goodman, R., Meltzer, H., & Bailey, V. (1998). The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: A pilot study on the validity of the self-report version. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 7(3), 125-130. https://doi.org/10.1007/s007870050057

Goodman, R., Ford, T., Simmons, H., Gatward, R., & Meltzer, H. (2000). Using the Strenghts and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to screen for child psychiatric disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry, 177, 534-539. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.177.6.534

Goodman, A., Lamping, D. L., & Ploubidis, G. B. (2010). When to use broader internalizing and externalizing subscales instead of the hypothesized five subscales on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ): data from British parents, teachers and children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 38, 1179-1191. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-010-9434-x

Gullone, E., & Robinson, K. (2005). The Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment-Revised (IPPA-R) for children: A psychometric investigation. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 12, 67-79. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.433

Gustafsson, B. M., Gustafsson, P. A., & Proczkowska-Björklund, M. (2016). The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) for preschool children- a Swedish validation. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 70(8), 567-574.

https://doi.org/10.1080/08039488.2016.1184309

Guttmannova, K., Szanyi, J. M., & Cali, P. W. (2008). Internalizing and externalizing behavior problem scores. Cross-ethnic and longitudinal measurement invariance of the behavior problem index. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 68(4), 676-694. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013164407310127

Koskelainen, M., Sourander, A., & Kaljonen, A. (2000). The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire among Finnish school-aged children and adolescents. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 9, 277-284. https://doi.org/0.1007/s007870070031

Lewis, M. (2000). Toward a development of psychopathology. Models, definitions, and prediction. In A. J. Sameroff, M. Lewis, & S. M. Miller (Eds.), Handbook of developmental psychopathology (2th ed.). New York: Springer.

Lianos, P. G. (2015). Parenting and social competence in school: The role of preadolescents’ personality traits. Journal of Adolescence, 41, 109-110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2015.03.006

Liu, J. (2004). Childhood externalizing behavior: Theory and implications. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 17(3), 93-103. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6171.2004.tb00003.x

Lyons-Ruth, K. (1996). Attachment relationships among children with aggressive behavior problems: The role of disorganized early attachment patterns. Journal of Counsulting and Clinical Psychology, 64(1), 64-73. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.64.1.64

Machado, T. S. (2004). Vinculação e comportamentos anti-sociais. In A. C. Fonseca (Ed.), Comportamento anti-social e crime. Da infância à idade adulta (pp.291-321). Coimbra: Almedina.

Machado, T. S., & Figueiredo, T. (2010). Vinculação a Pais, Pares e professores - estudos com o IPPA-R para crianças do ensino básico. Psychologica, 53, 27-45. http://iduc.uc.pt/index.php/psychologica/article/view/1078

Machado, T. S., & Fonseca, A. C. (2009). Desenvolvimento adaptativo em jovens portugueses: Será significativa a relação com os pais? INFAD-International Journal of Development and Educational Psychology, 1(3), 461-468. http://infad.eu/RevistaINFAD/2009/n1/volumen3/INFAD_010321_461-468.pdf

Machado, T. S., Fonseca, A. C., & Queiroz, E. (2008). Vinculação aos pais e problemas de internalização em adolescentes – dados de um estudo longitudinal. INFAD-International Journal of Development and Educational Psychology, 1, 321-332. http://infad.eu/RevistaINFAD/2008/n1/volumen3/INFAD_010320_321-332.pdf

Marzocchi, G. M., Capron, C., Di Pietro, M., Tauleria, E. D., Duyme, M., Frigerio, A., et al., (2004). The use of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionaire (SDQ) in South European countries. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 13(Suppl.2), 40-46. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-004-2007-1

McCarty, C. A. (2008). Adolescent school failure predicts depression among girls. Journal of Adolescent Health, 43(2), 180-187. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.01.023

McConnell, M., & Moss, E. (2011). Attachment across the life span: Factors that contribute to stability and change. Australian Journal of Educational & Developmental Psychology, 11, 60-77. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ960225.pdf

McEwen, C., & Flouri, E. (2009). Fathers’ parenting, adverse life events, and adolescents’ emotional and eating disorder symptoms: the role of emotion regulation. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 18, 206-216. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-008-0719-3

McKee, L., Colletti, C., Rakow, A., Jones, D. J., & Forehand, R. (2008). Parenting and child externalizing behaviors: Are the associations specific or diffuse? Aggression and Violent Behavior, 13(3), 201-215. http://dx.doi:10.1016/j.avb.2008.03.005

Meer, van der M., Dixon, A., & Rose, D. (2008). Parent and child agreement on reports of problem behavior obtained from a screening questionnaire, the SDQ. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 17, 491-497. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-008-0691-y

Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. R. (2007). Attachment in adulthood. Structure, dynamics, and change. New York. Guilford Press.

Mitchell, D. B., & Hauser-Cram, P. (2009). Early predictors of behavior problems. Two years after early intervention. Journal of Early Intervention, 32(1), 3-16. https://doi.org/10.1177/1053815109349113

Moffitt, T. E., & Caspi, A. (2000). Comportamento anti-social persistente ao longo da vida e comportamento anti-social limitado à adolescência. Seus preditores e suas etiologies. Revista Portuguesa de Pedagogia, XXX(1,2,3), 65-106.

Moretti, M. M., & Peled, M. (2004). Adolescent-parent attachment: Bonds that support healthy development. Paediatrics & Child Health, 9(8), 551-555. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2724162/

Moriwaki, A., & Kamio, Y. (2014). Normative data and psychometric properties of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire among Japanese school-aged children. Child & Adolescent Psychiatry & Mental Health, 8(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/1753-2000-8-1

Muris, P. (2006). Freud was right… About the origins of abnormal behavior. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15(1), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-005-9006-9

Muris, O., & Maas, A. (2004). Strengths and difficulties as correlates of attachment style in institutionalized and non-institutionalized children with below-average intellectual abilities. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 34(4), 317-328. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:CHUD.0000020682.55697.4f

Muris, P., Meesters, C., & van den Berg, S. (2003). Internalizing and externalizing problems as correlates of self-reported attachment style and perceived parental rearing in normal adolescents. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 12(2), 171-183. https://doi.org/0.1023/A:1022858715598

Nunes, S. A. N., Faraco, A. M. X., Vieira, M. L., & Rubin, K. H. (2013). Externalizing and internalizing problems: contributions of attachment and parental practices. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 26(3), 617-625. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-79722013000300022

Pehrsson, D., Allen, V., Folger, W., McMillen, P. S., & Lowe, I. (2007). Bibliotherapy with preadolescents experiencing divorce. The Family Journal, 15(4), 409-414. https://doi.org/10.1177/1066480707305352

Razavi, M., Fatehizade, M., Etemadi, O., Abedi, M., Bahrami, & Sarami, G. (2013). Family functioning and internalizing and externalizing disorders in children: Examining the quality of attachment as mediator and moderator. Journal of American Science, 9(6s), 113-121. https://doi.org/10.7537/marsjas0906s13.17

Richter, J., Sagatun, A., Heyerdahl, S., Oppedal, B., & Røysamb, E. (2011). The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) – Self-report. An analysis of its structure in a multiethnic urban adolescent sample. The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 52(9), 1002-1011. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02372.x

Rodríguez-Hernández, P. J., Betancort, M.P., Ramírez-Santana, G. M., García, R. Sanz-Álvarez, E., & Cuevas-Castresana, C. De (2012). Psychometric properties of the parent and teacher versions of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in a Spanish sample. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 12(2), 265-279. http://www.aepc.es/ijchp/articulos.php?coid=Espa%EF%BF%BDol&id=411

Roelofs, J., Onckels, L., & Muris, P. (2013). Attachment quality and psychopathological symptoms in clinical referred adolescents: The mediating role of early maladaptive schema. Journal of Child and Families Studies, 22(3), 377-385. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-012-9589-x

Rutter, M. (2002). Nature, nurture, and development: From evangelism through science toward policy and practice. Child Development, 73(1), 1-21. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00388

Rutter, M. (2010). Significados múltiplos de uma perspectiva desenvolvimentista em psicopatologia. In A. C. Fonseca (Ed.), Crianças e adolescentes. Uma abordagem multidisciplinar (pp. 27-68). Coimbra: Almedina.

Rutter, M., Kim-Cohen, J., & Maughan, B. (2006). Continuities and discontinuities in psychopathology between childhood and adult life. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(3/4), 276-295. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2006.01614.x

Sameroff, A. J. (2010). A unified theory of development: A dialectic integration of nature and nurture. Child Development, 81(1), 6-22. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01378.x

Sameroff, A. J. (2014). A dialectic integration of development for the study of psychopathology. In M. Lewis, & K. D. Rudolph (Eds.), Handbook of developmental psychopathology, 3th ed. New York: Springer.

Santos, L. M., Queirós, F. C., Barreto, M. L., & Santos, D. N. (2016). Prevalence of behavior problems and associated factors in preschool children from the city of Salvador, state of Bahia, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 38(1). https://doi.org/10.1590/1516-4446-2014-1596

Schechter, D. S., & Willheim, E. (2009). Disturbances of attachment and parental psychopathology in early childhood. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 18(3).665-686. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chc.2009.03.001

Sroufe, A. (2005). Attachment and development: A prospective, longitudinal study from birth to adulthood. Attachment & Human Development, 7(4), 349-367. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616730500365928

Sroufe, A. (2009). The concept of development in developmental psychopathology. Child Development Perspective, 3(3), 178-183. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-8606.2009.00103x

Stallman, H. M., & Sanders, M. (2007). Family transitions triple P. The theoretical basis and development of a program for parents going through divorce. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 47(3), 133-153. https://doi.org/10.1300/J087v47n03_07

Strecht, P. (2012). Interiores. 4ª ed. Lisboa: Assírio & Alvim.

Tambelli, R., Laghi, F., Odorisio, F., & Notari, V. (2012). Attachment relationships and internalizing and externalizing problems among Italian adolescents. Children and Youth Services Review, 34, 1465-1471. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2012.04.004

Van Djken, S., Van der Veer, R., Van Ijzendoorn, M., & Kuipers, H.-J. (1998). Bowlby before Bowlby: The sources of an intellectual departure in psychoanalysis and psychology. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 34(3), 247-269. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1520-6696(199822)34:3<247::AID-JHBS2>3.0.CO;2-N

Wissink., I. B., Colonnesi, C., Stams, G. J. J. M., Hoeve, M., Asscher, J. J., Noom, M. J., Polderman, N., & Kellart-Knol, M. G. (2015). Validity and reliability of the attachment insecurity screening inventory (AISI) 2-5 years. Child Indicators Research, 9, 533-550. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12187-015-9322-6

Woerner, W., Fleitlich-Bilyk, B., Martinussen, R., Fletcher, J., Cucchiaro, G., Dalgalarrondo, P., Lui, M., & Tannock, R. (2004). The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire overseas: Evaluations and applications of the SDQ beyond Europe. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry,13-II/47-II/54. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-004-2008-0

Zimmermann, P. (2004). Attachment representations and characteristics of friendship relations during adolescence. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 88, 83-101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2004.02.002




DOI: https://doi.org/10.17979/reipe.2017.4.1.1553

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.


Licencia Creative Commons

Esta revista es continuación de: Revista Galego-Portuguesa de Psicoloxía e Educación (1997-2013) - ISSN: 1138-1663.